Otzi the iceman radiocarbon dating
This is only the second time that such a tool has been reported in the skull of an ancient Egyptian mummy.
A brain-removal tool used by ancient Egyptian embalmers has been discovered lodged in the skull of a female mummy that dates back around 2,400 years.
The instrument would have been inserted through a hole punched into the ethmoid bone near the nose.
"Some parts [of the brain] would be wrapped around this stick and pulled out, and the other parts would be liquefied," Čavka said.
This inferred change of the glaciers is supported also by some soil horizons found in depression between 3.000 and 3.215m a.s.l. So the botanical evidence seems to confirm a climate comparable to pre-industrial conditions and implies a glacial extent similar, if not slightly minor, to the recent past. (2000): The longterm signal of climate change in the Swiss Alps: Glacier retreat since the end of the little Ice Age and future ice decay scenarios. During the last glacial maximum some 18.000 years ago the entire area of the Ötztaler Alps was almost completely ice-covered, only narrow and steep arêtes and horns protruded from the sea of ice. The Iceman and his site so reveal that between 9.000 and 5.000yr B. the mountain glaciers were smaller than in the second half of the Holocene. The artefacts of the Iceman provided also insights in the landscape in which Ötzi lived. During my research on glaciers, studying old maps, photography and reports on the former extent of these features, I became interested in history, especially the development of geomorphologic and geological concepts by naturalists and geologists.In the area of the Similaun Hut sharp trim lines in a height varying from 3.060m to 3.400m divide the uppermost frost-shattered crests from the lower slopes, smoothed by glacial erosion. It was an environment characterised by a rich biodiversity, he could use and in fact used an astonishing variety of plants found in his living space. Living in one of the key area for the history of geology, I combine field trips with the historic research done in these regions, accompanied by historic maps and depictions.The body was left on the site of the murder - maybe the aggressors assumed that scavengers and time would erase all the evidences- but in the cold and dry climate in 3.200m a.s.l.the body begun to desiccate and large scavengers didn't venture in this desolate realm, only some flies were able to deposits their eggs on the body but they weren't able to destroy it.