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It is not possible to produce a reliable quantitative estimate of the aggregate portion of the raw gender wage gap for which the explanatory factors that have been identified account. The rates for other groups were as follows: * Unpaid work—such as caring for children, cooking, and cleaning—increases standards of living, but it is often not recorded in standard economic measures.  Per an academic book published by Stanford University Press: The impact of declining levels of unpaid work over time on all aspects of household living standards deserves more careful consideration.Nevertheless, it can confidently be concluded that, collectively, those factors account for a major portion and, possibly, almost all of the raw gender wage gap. * In 2013, 54% of Mexico and Central American immigrants aged 25–64 did not have a high school diploma or GED, as compared to 7% of people born in the U. There is something fundamentally misleading about measuring gains to family earnings provided by increases in women’s employment that do not account for the reduction in living standards resulting from declines in time devoted to unpaid work. * The labor force, as defined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, includes all people who are “either working or actively seeking work.” The potential labor force used by the Bureau to determine the labor force participation rate includes: persons 16 years of age and older residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia who do not live in institutions (for example, correctional facilities, long-term care hospitals, and nursing homes) and who are not on active duty in the Armed Forces.  * “Underemployment” is a wider measure of idle potential labor than unemployment.
For our sample of working men and women between the ages of 26 and 34 in 1990, the average female wage rate was 87.4% of the average male wage rate; but when an index of total compensation is used, the estimate rises to 96.4% of male compensation.Facts about these issues can be found in Just Facts’ article, “Do Large National Debts Harm Economies?“ * Consumption refers to household spending on goods and services.Using 2,000 data points on national debt and economic growth in 20 advanced economies (such as the United States, France, and Japan) from 1800–2009, the authors found that countries with national debts above 90% of GDP averaged 34% less real annual economic growth than when their debts were below 90% of GDP. * In 2013, the Political Economy Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, published a working paper about the economic consequences of government debt.Using data on national debt and economic growth in 20 advanced economies from 1946–2009, the authors found that countries with national debts over 90% of GDP averaged: * The authors of the above-cited papers have engaged in a heated dispute about the results of their respective papers and the effects of government debt on economic growth.